Strike Weapon of Today UAVs: Special-Report


It has been one of the most dramatic and universal changes in military “tactics, techniques and procedures” in history. From a single, barebones “eye in the sky” over Iraq in1992 to “persistent intelligence, surveillance,and reconnaissance” (ISR) a decade later to“persistent strike” tomorrow, the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has become an absolute necessity to war fighters of all nations, all services, all ranks.
The American military and other world Armed services are now seems to be acquiring a effective fleet of battlefield UAVs. The world armed services are entering a new era in which UAVs will be critical to combat operations, with the machines carrying imaging reconnaissance or SIGINT payloads, relaying the data over high-bandwidth data links in real time to ground, air, sea, and space platforms. This trend had been emerging before the American war in Afghanistan in 2001-2002, but was greatly accelerated by the use of UAVs in that conflict.


UAVs were the fastest-growing segment of the aerospace sector in 2008, with a worldwide value of more than $3.4 billion (USD). More than 42 countries have gone on record as producing at least one UAV airframe, and nearly 1,000 systems exist today, worldwide. 262 Producers of UAVs - 42 Countries. Europe 18, UAVS Research and Development BY 49 countries Europe 21, Future UAVs producing countries in 2010 9, Europe 5.

Unmanned systems murdering civilians is counter-productive to winning hearts & minds and actually makes more rebels. It is noted that the military UAV market was worth US$250million in 1992, rapidly increasing to US$600million in 1997, but projected to level off at US700million in 2002. However, it is noted that the civilian UAV market is projected to increase from the insignificant level in 1997 to an incredible US$500million in 2002.

Predators originally were designed for reconnaissance and surveillance, but now some are armed with ¬laser-¬guided Hellfire missiles. A massive change has thus occurred in the airspace above wars. Only a handful of drones were used in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, with just one supporting all of V Corps, the primary U.S. Army combat force. Today there are more than 5,300 drones in the U.S. military’s total inventory. The military has dozens of Predators in Iraq and Afghanistan. In all it operates 5,000 drones, 25 times more than it had in 2001.

The US`s National Defense Authorization Fiscal Year 2001 legislation declared `It shall be a goal of the Armed Forces to achieve the fielding of unmanned, remotely controlled technology such that ... by 2010, one-third of the aircraft in the operational deep strike force aircraft fleet are unmanned. Establish a plan to develop a new land-based, long-range strike force by 2018, of which about 45 percent would be unmanned; to expand maritime aviation to include unmanned aircraft for both surveillance and strike missions
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Annually investing hundreds of millions of dollars in developing and advancing UAV technology for its own use and export, the US program is projected to be $10 billion from 2003 to 2010.

The Netherlands is not the only nation to employ Israeli unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in foreign occupation. They are also utilized by Canadian, US, UK and Australian forces in Afghanistan and Iraq.

In fiscal year 2002, U.S. military drones (both killer and unarmed) flew 27,201 hours, according to a recent Congressional report. By fiscal year 2007, that figure had increased ten-fold, to 258,502 hours. In the first eight months of fiscal year 2008, the drones had logged 230,000 hours. . The longest declassified Predator flight was 40 hours, 5 minutes

UAV usage across all the military services jumped from nearly 165,000 flight hours in the 2006 fiscal year, to more than 258,000 for the fiscal year that ended Sept. 30, 2007. The total flight time has reached 400 thousand hours as of march 2009

Pentagon's inventory of unmanned aerial systems has leapt from about 200 in 2002 to nearly 6,000 in 2008, For the 2008 fiscal year, the Defense Department has a $15 billion budget just for unmanned systems

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) continue to be the most dynamic growth sector of the world aerospace industry, 2009 market study estimates that UAV spending will almost double over the next decade from current worldwide UAV expenditures of $4.4 billion annually to $8.7 billion within a decade, totaling just over $62 billion in the next ten years.

The Army has five types of UAVs. In 2006, there were about 1,870 Army UAVs, and that number is expected to grow to about 4,200 by late 2008. Army UAVs are used mostly to spot enemy movements and roadside bombs
The Air Force flies two major UAV systems known as the Predator and the Global Hawk. Both operate at high altitudes and carry a wide range of weapons to attack enemy armor, trucks and troops.

Recently released “The Market for UAV Reconnaissance Systems,” which claims that the total UAV market including air vehicles, ground control equipment and payloads is expected to be worth $13.6 billion through 2014. More than 9,000 UAVs are expected to be purchased over the next 10 years by countries in every region of the world, and Forecast International does not include funding for RDT&E and operations and maintenance in its analysis.

The study suggests that the US will account for 72% of the worldwide RDT&E spending on UAV technology over the next decade, and about 61% of the procurement. "We expect that the sales of UAVs will follow recent patterns of high-tech arms procurement worldwide, with Europe representing the second largest market, followed very closely by Asia-Pacific.

To put funding in perspective, the DOD’s FY04 budget includes around $1 billion for all UAV spending, but more than $5.5 billion for just three short-range manned fighter programs. On the other hand, this UAV funding is up from only $360 million in FY01 and $760 million in FY02.
International UAV market analyses have estimated the total value of the global UAV Systems market to be worth in excess of US$19.5 billion over the next six years (1998 to 2003).

“Nearly 8000 unmanned air-vehicles (UAVs) worth $3.9 billion were produced worldwide between 1994 and 2003. The reconnaissance market is expected to double in size over the ten-year period, UAV annual forecast., estimates that 5250 target drones worth $1.3 billion and 2650 reconnaissance systems worth $2.6 billion were procured during the decade. The estimate does not consider the cost of related hardware such as ground-control stations. It only covers air-vehicle costs, which constitute as little as 15% of many UAV systems.”

Many years of bombing have preceded this bombing year 36,000 bombing raids in 2008 and an estimated 144,000 resistance fighters killed in their own countries - by invaders - in the first 11 months of 2008, 37,034 bombing raid in Iraq and Afghanistan in 2008.

Today, no less than 45 countries fly hundreds of different UAV models; in the U.S. alone, there are approximately 280 companies, academic institutions, and government groups developing more than 200 different UAV designs ranging in price from $1000 to $26 million dollars

japan, leads in commercial UAV use with approximately 2000 unmanned helicopters spraying fields for pest abatement or seeding crops.

Worldwide, these UAVs range in size from the palm-size Black Widow “micro” UAV spy plane (6 inch. in diameter, 1.5 oz) to Northrop Grumman’s RQ-4/Global Hawk (weighing in at 25,600 lb).DOD issued the Unmanned Systems Roadmap 2007-2032 (Roadmap), UAS programs. In 2001, for example, the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics created the joint Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Planning Task Force to serve as a joint advocate for developing and fielding UAS.

Establish a plan to develop a new land-based, long-range strike force by 2018, of which about 45 percent would be unmanned; to expand maritime aviation to include unmanned aircraft for both surveillance and strike missions

DOD’s funding plans for UAS reflect their growing importance to the department. In fiscal year 2009, DOD requested approximately $3.5 billion for UAS procurement and research and development—approximately $1 billion more than the department’s fiscal year 2008 request, DOD plans to make additional investments in UAS programs from fiscal years 2010 through 2017.

From 2008-2017 USA is going to spend US$18,577 million for UAVs Procument .Europe is going to spend US$ 40.47 billion from 2008-20017

From July 2005 to June 2006, the 15th Reconnaissance Squadron participated in more than 242 separate raids, engaged 132 troops in contact-force protection actions, fired 59 Hellfire missiles; surveyed 18,490 targets, escorted four convoys, and flew 2,073 sorties for more than 33,833 flying hours

During Operation DESERT STORM, UAVs were successfully employed by the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps to provide NRT day/night RSTA, BDA, and battlefield management. UAVs TYPE year used 1991 Kuwait,Iraq(1)RQ-2 Pioneer (2) FQM-151 Pointer , UAVs proved to be fair weather aircraft. During Operation DESERT STORM in 1991, rain eroded the laminated wood propellers of Pioneer UAVs.11 During the 1990s, precipitation, fog, and crosswinds often prevented safe takeoffs and landings. Lightweight UAVs such as the Predator, the Hunter, and the Pioneer were less able to cope with high winds than heavier manned aircraft. a Pioneer flying over northeastern Saudi Arabia detected the Iraqi attack on Khafji, enabling U.S. air strikes to decimate the invaders. Pioneers also served as artillery spotters for a battleship in the Persian Gulf.

MARTs were used successfully for reconnaissance and target acquisition, and were the only entirely European-built UAVs used over Iraq during the 1991 Gulf War

UAVs Station in Bosnia in 93-96 by different countries. France -Crecerrelle, UN- Fox NET, USA- (1) Gnat750,(2)Pioneer,(3)Predator

Kosovo war 98-99.France (1) CL-289(2) Crecerrelle.Germany CL-289.United kingdom Phoenix’s.USA (1) Pioneer(2) predator(3)Hunter. Kosovo -05 Belgium Hunter .Djibouti/Yemen -02 ,predator.East Timor -02 Australia AeroSonde III.Solomon Islands-03 Australia (1)AeroSonde III (2) Avator.

Afghanistan UAVs Station by different countries 2001- 2009. Australia (1)Scan Eagle.Canada (1) Sperwer(2)Sky Lork.France (1) Skorpio(2)Sperwer(3) SIDM interim medium-altitude.Germany (1)Aladin(2)Luna.Netherland (1) Aladin(2) Skylork(3)Sperwer.UAE (1)S-100.United Kingdom (1) Desert hawk(2)Herti (3)Predator B.USA (1) Dragon eye(2)Global- hawk(3)pointer(4)Predator (5) shadow(6) Reaper(7)Sea scout.Poland Sky Lark. Orbiter mini UAVs

Iraq, UAVs station by different countries 2003-2009.Australia (1)Scan-Eagle(2)Sky-lork.Italy (1) Predator. Japan (1) RMAX.Romania (1) Shadow-600.UK(1)Desert Hawk(2)Hermes-450,(3)phoenix.USA(1)Desert-Hawk(2)Scan-Eagle(3)Dragon-eye(4)Global - Hawk(5)IGnat(6)Hunter(7)Pioneer(8)predator(9)Reape r(10)Puma(11)Raven(12) Tern (13) Shadow-200(14)Silver-fox(15)Snow-Goose(16)Wasp.
UAVs Station in different countries by other countries.Angolo 2003-2009 ,IL Contract(1) Aerostar.South-Korea 2003 ,USA(1)Shadow 200.IVORY Coast 04 IL Contract,Aerostar.Ivory Coast 2006 ,France (1)skorpio.DR Congo ,Belgium(1) Hunter. Lebanon 2006,FRANCE (1) sperwer.Kosovo 2007 France(1)sperwer.Chad-08,France(1)SkyLark.

UAVs provided a large percentage of the tactical reconnaissance conducted in Kosovo. Most UAVs were operating at much lower altitudes than manned aircraft—only a few thousand feet. Yet both the dollar and human costs of this 25:2 loss ratio were still far greater for the manned aircraft (even without including the cost of rescue operations). Tactical UAVs, with sensors, cost only about 1/100th as much as a manned platform

Drones" were lost by NATO USA during the war in Yugoslavia.United States: 17 (3 Predators, 9 Hunters, 4 Pioneers, 1 UAV of undetermined type) Germany: 7 (presumably all CL-289 turbojet drones) France: 5 (3 Crecerelle, 2 CL-289) Britain: 14 (14 Phoenix) 4 UAVs of undetermined origin (possibly U.S., German, or Italian) (Sources French Le Monde newspaper, http://uav.navair.navy.mil)
The total bill to U.S. taxpayers for lost drones in Afghanistan is over $55 million. The Global Hawk is manufactured by Northrup Grumman at Rancho Bernardo, CA, at a cost of $15 million each, while the Predator RQ-1 is made in San Diego, California, by General Atomics, with a unit price tag of $ 4.5 million
Drones Lost in Afghan Theater, 2001-2002

In fact, about one-third of the 65 Predators which had been built by early 2002 had crashed. A report in Defense Week in May 2002 noted that of a fleet of 65 in total, 23 Predator drones [or 35 percent] had gone down -- nine were shot down, eight experienced mechanical problems and/or bad weather, and six losses were chalked up to human error
Global Hawk unit cast $ 15 million deployed 2 ,Crashed 2 , % destroyed 100. Predator unit cast $ 4.5 million Deployed 12,,Crashed 2 , 100. Predator unit cast $ 4.5 million Deployed 12,crashed 6,destroyed 50%.

Iraq UAVs crash including 76 UAVs (mostly British+USA) alone in 2003-2004. Iraq war started in March 2003, it had 14 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs); it now has about 700 in Iraq and Afghanistan, most of them small. In 2003 and 2004, the Army flew the aircraft about 1,500 hours per month,. In2005, the aircraft flew 9,000 hours a month.'in 2007 Predator flight hours are expected to exceed 70,000 hours, more than triple the total in 2003, the war's first year. Of the 139 Predators delivered to the Air Force, 53 have been lost till 2007
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To meet the surge in demand, the Air Force is ramping up its training pipeline, growing its training capacity from 160 new crews per year to 360 by 2010 with the opening of new training schools at Holloman Air Force Base, N.M., and March Air Reserve Base, Calif.
Hunter and Shadow training is 12 weeks and Sky Warrior training is 25 weeks. As of October, the Army had trained 3,200 UAV enlisted .Crewmembers are trained at the Air Force Predator school, which graduated 105 crews in 2006. The Air Force expects 120 two-member crews will graduate in 2007 and 148 in 2008. It takes about three months to train a crew.

On the airborne side, four systems--the Raven, the Shadow, the Hunter and the Sky Warrior--have logged more than 300,000 hours during Operation Iraqi Freedom. When that operation first started, "you could measure the (use of) unmanned aircraft systems in maybe tens of hours a day,"By 2005, that number had climbed to about 100 hours per day, and now that figure has reached about 500 hours per day.

185 UA losses were recorded, 1991-2003. An average of 14.2 per year. Considering the specific periods of major conflict; 20 RQ-2 Pioneer UA were lost in Desert Storm over a period of less than a year, 18 were combat losses and two were non-combat losses. In Operation Allied Force in Kosovo, 47 UA of various types were lost. Of the 45 losses, 28 were combat and 19 were non-combat.
47 drones lost by the US military and air force in the past six years, 67% went down due to operator error, so at £5m each .

12 key members of Unmanned Vehicle Systems (UVS) International drove the formation of the Euro UAV ICB, namely: QinetiQ (UK), ADSE (The Netherlands), Dassault Aviation (France), EADS Defence & Security Systems (DS) (France & Germany), Saab (Sweden), and Sagem (France) newly formed Euro UAV Industry Consultation Body (ICB). The companies - Vigilance BV, (The Netherlands), EADS Socata, (France), Thales Sensors, (UK), Thales Airborne Systems, (France), Thales Avionics, (France), Logstar Aviacion, (Spain), TRC AB, (Sweden), Blyenburgh & Co, (France) –

Austrian models(1) Schiebel Camcopter S-100, reconnaissance. Schiebel of Austria has developed a helicopter mini-UAV named the "CamCopter 5.1", which was evaluated by such customers as the US Air Force as part of studies in developing improved defenses from terrorist attacks on military installations. It has also been tested by the United States Army for use in landmine detection, using both infrared and ground penetrating radar sensors. The CamCopter 5.1 has been delivered to the US military, France, and the Egyptian Navy. To date, no procurement is known to have been made, UAVs for LawEnforcement and Border Protection purpose.

The German Ministry of Defense (MoD) recently selected the vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) CAMCOPTER S-100 UAV system from Schiebel (Vienna, Austria) for its Navy fleet. CAMCOPTER is fabricated with carbon/epoxy prepregs from Advanced Composites Group Ltd. (ACG, Rover TJ125 turbojet with 510 N (52 kg / 114 lb) thrust. It was launched by a RATO booster and recovered by parachute

Belgian models (1) EPERVIER drone (1969) It was built by Manufacture Belge De Lampes Et De Materiel Electronique SA (MBLE) of Belgium. Epervier prototypes were propeller-driven, but the production Epervier UAV, the "X.5" model, was fitted with. Belgium(1) Flying Cam (2)B-HUNTER (UAV) (2002) has 18 but two crashed one DR CONGO in 2008 and 2nd was in belgium. Belgium has also extended its use of UAVs for pollution detection and in assisting with forest fire detection, and looking at how to integrate UAVs into Air Traffic Control systems.

Bulgarian models (1)RUM-1, target (1967) (2)RUM-2, target (1967) (3)RUM-2M, target (1969) (4)RUM-2MB, target (1971) (5)M-200, target (1971) (6)UtRUM, targer (1974) (7)P-200, target (1975) (8)Yastreb-1, target (1978) (9)Yastreb-2, target (1981) (11)Yastreb-3,target (1982) (12)NITI (2006)

Chinese (PRC) models The People’s Liberation Army Air Force is believed to be making steady progress in adopting and adapting more modern technologies in China’s domestic military UAV programs, including initial moves into the development of combat UAVs (UCAVs). While details are difficult to verify, the WuZhen-9 stealthy reconnaissance UAV (also designated as WZ-9 and WZ- 2000) is, in outward appearance, a virtual clone of the U.S. Global Hawk, although considerably smaller.China has different UAVs Manufacturing companies (1) Beijing Wisewell Avionics Science and Technology Company has 2 UAVs model(2) CAIC has 2 UAVs model.(3) Xi'An ASN Technology Group has 4 UAVs model.(3) Xi'An ASN Technology Group has 4 UAVs MODEL

(1)ChangKong-1, target, reconnaissance (1966) (2)ChangKong-2 An improvement of the Changkon-1 Maneuverable Drone, the ultra-low altitude variant, was developed by Nanjing Aeronautical Institute. Like the former, the drone was designed for missile testing, in this case for low-altitude air-to-ground missiles.approved in (1989)

(3)ASN-206 Its primary military applications reportedly are day and night reconnaissance, battlefield surveillance, target location, artillery fire correction, and battle damage assessment. (4)WuZhen-5 In November 1972, the WZ 5 pilotless aircraft made its first successful deployment from a Tu-4 and was certified after a test flight in May 1978. In the test, the WZ-5 had a flight time of 3 hours, 14 minutes and had a range of 2,380 km. The WZ-5 was certified for delivery to the Chinese military in December 1980 (4)WZ-2000, reconnaissance (2003) (6)Xianglong Unmanned Reconnaissance Aerial Vehicle, military reconnaissance (2009(7) W-50 UAV(8)

Combined with Predator-sized UAVs that also may be designed for weapons delivery as well as S/R missions, China has demonstrated a growing potential to bring U.S.-style unmanned combat assets to any future conflict. The country also has become an exporter of UAVs to such countries as Bangladesh, Egypt, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, through the efforts of the government owned China National Aero Technology Import and Export Corporation.

France continues to dominate the UAV landscape in Europe, with some 50 different platforms or variants in domestic production and a role in dozens of programs for other nations. One of the earliest was the Altec "Mini-Avion de Reconnaissance Telepilote (MART)" series, with the MART II serving with French forces in the Gulf War.France top UAVs Manufacturing companies (1) DSTU (Dassault Aviation) has 5 UAVs model (2) EADS DS has 9 UAVs MODEL (3) ECT Industries has one UAVs MODEL(4) Onéra has one UAVs MODEL (5) Survey-Copter has one UAVs MODEL (6) Sagem has 9 UAVs model(7) Alcore Technologies has 4 UAVs model (8) PY Design has one UAVs model.(9) Tecknisolar-Seni has 4 UAVs model.

French models The French Sagem firm developed a medium-sized UAV, derived from the popular Meggitt Banshee target, known as the "Crecerelle" ("Kestrel" or "Sparrowhawk") SAGEM is now selling an improved derivative of the Crecerelle named the "Sperwer", and it is being operated by the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, France, and Greece. The Swedes call it the "Ugglan (Owl)".Canada also buy Sperwer (1)SAGEM Sperwer, reconnaissance

(2)Dassault AVE-D Petit Duc, research (2000) It was flown for the first time eight years ago (July 2000), designed to test and validation advanced Uninhabited Air Vehicles (UAV), stealth designs and autonomous flight. As part of this stealth design evaluation, a tail-less version of the aircraft designated AVE-C was flown in June 2003. According to Dassault, the flight marks a significant first for the company, confirming its expertise in Uninhabited Air Vehicles. AVE-D autonomous flight demonstration for DGA: June 30, 2008

(3)Dassault AVE-C Moyen Duc, research (2001) The two first vehicles, AVE-D and AVE-C, are scale model 1/100 (50kg) and 1/10 (500kg) stealth "tactical drones" (UAV), while the final version was to be a full scale (5,000kg) prototype stealth "combat drone" (UCAV). Each vehicle was given an owl name as "Duc" ("duke") is the French name of a nocturnal bird of prey specie known in Latin as Otus aka Scops owl. Petit Duc ("small duke") stands for Scops Owl, Moyen Duc ("medium duke") stands for Long-eared Owl and Grand Duc ("large duke") is Eagle Owl. Other Dassault aircraft with bird names are the Dassault MD 315 Flamant (Flamingo) and the Dassault Falcon (Falcon) family.

(4)Dassault-Sagem SlowFast, reconnaissance (2004) The Dassault-Sagem SlowFast is a tactical stealth UAV concept designed by the French unmanned aircraft manufacturer Dassault-Sagem Tatical UAV in 2004.The SlowFast is an evolution of the twin-engine tactical UAV Dassault AVE-C Moyen Duc. The SlowFast designation comes from its versatility to perform high-speed reconnaissance flight (Mach 1.6) and 3-4 hours autonomy low-speed (120 kt) observation mission. Its ground station is based on the Sagem Sperwer's model. The drone was designed after the French Army's needs and is planned to be used by the Ground Force divisions

(5)Verhagen X2 Autonomous Helicopters, flycam reconnaissance (2008 (6)Flying-Robots FR102, softs wings based (2008) Paris-based Flying Robots also sells inflatable-wing UAS. The company began in 2004 and its aircraft are now on the markethe company's FR102 can carry up to 250 kilograms (551 pounds) for 12 to 24 hours, a performance level similar to the SnowGoose. The company has sold one system to France's special forces, which are evaluating it, and another to China. the FR102 is particularly suited to pipeline inspection and the company is talking with several large petroleum firms about that use.

(7)MART-ll MARTs were used successfully for reconnaissance and target acquisition, and were the only entirely European-built UAVs used over Iraq during the 1991 Gulf War. Altec Industries purchased all rights to the MART air vehicle in August 1991, and became the prime contractor for the MART Mk II system. The Mk II was based on in-the-field lessons from the Gulf War (8) ALTEC (9) Matra BAE Dynamics developed a UAV named "Dragon", no relation to the BAI Dragon.

(9) The Tracker system allowing the user to see behind a hill, the Tracker very short-range UAV system is dedicated to intelligence gathering for the infantry. Simple and rustic, the unit is carried in a backpack and can be operated by just two soldiers. Its design allows it to reach a speed of 100 km and a maximum altitude of 2 km. The Tracker UAV can be used for detection, reconnaissance, identification, classification and tracking.(10) Scorpio Scorpio UAVs is simple, low-cost systems, well adapted to urban zones and partitioned areas. It is equipped with a gyro-stabilised turret and can carry out missions in all weather conditions. The payload includes EO/IR, TV and communication relays. the Scorpio, which weighs less than 15 kg,

(11) Surveyor-600. The Surveyor-600 will be able to rapidly adjust its speed according to the needs of the mission. It will accommodate a 65- kg payload, including EO/IR, TV, ESM/ECM sensors and radars as well as a laser designator. The system will integrate the latest data interpretation and fusion technologies. The device will carry out surveillance of strategic points as well as identification and classification of targets. It will have the capability of targeting and even launching smart sub-ammunitions.(12) Surveyor-2500
This 5.50 metre-long and 1.50 metre-high UAV will be able to carry out all kinds of missions, from surveillance to reconnaissance, control, and even communication relay. Its 12-hour endurance gives it a range of 200 km, and the device has a data link capability of up to 185 km. It will also be a great asset for civilian missions, such as for meteorology or cartography purposes.

(13) CL-289 The latest version of the well-known CL-289 has just been developed. A fast reconnaissance drone, the CL-289 has been in service within the French and German forces since 1992. In January 2001, EADS Dornier was awarded a contract for the modernisation of 160 CL-289s in both countries. The new CL-289 can land with precision of 50 metres. These upgraded units was delivered in 2006.

(14)ORKA 1200, This multi-mission helicopter system is dedicated to reconnaissance and the protection of maritime and air-land environments. The ORKA system includes a payload EO/IR as well as a maritime surveillance radar and a secured high speed data link. With such advanced equipment, ORKA offers navies both naval supremacy and land attack operations capabilities. Its high payload capability (180 kg) and autonomy (8 hours) make it possible to carry out imagery or electromagnetic intelligence missions in a selected area.

(15) EuroHawk EADS DSS and Northrop Grumman are teaming up on the HALE (High Altitude Long Endurance) EuroHawk programme. In October 2003, the Global Hawk was successfully tested in-flight from the base of Nordholz, equipped with an EADS ELINT sensor. This reconnaissance and surveillance system is dedicated to high-altitude and longendurance flights. The German Ministry of Defence expressed its desire to replace the Breguet Atlantic in service within the German navy with these UAV HALEs

(16) Eagle -1,and Eagle -2 UAV system has been developed by EADS, in order to meet European requirements for strategic reconnaissance and surveillance, in support of out-of area operations. Two versions were planned – Eagle 1, powered by a 115 hp Rotax 914 engine which can fly at 25,000' and the Eagle 2 turboprop powered version (1200 hp PT6A engine), designed for 24 hours operation at 45,000'. Fully integrated into modern NATO C4I infrastructures, EAGLE become a major asset network centric operations of the French army. It is also be fielded with other NATO members. The aircraft can be deployed from airstrips with runways as short as 600 meters (eagle 1) and 1,000 m' (Eagle 2).

(17) DER or Bourdon Tecknisolar Seniof France has been devel- oping solar power UAVs, the creation of a 3.5kg electric drone fitted with a colour camera which sends real time video images to a ground based screen. The screen is integrated into either a back pack, case or image receiving hehnet, all of which are solar pow- ered and totally autonomous. It is intended for use by Mili- tary Commando Units, Task Forces and Military Scouts etc (18) Libellule Libellule, a high altitude drone, is able to reach alti-tudes of 25 to 30km. Propelled by solar energy, this stealth drone is able to manoeuvre around a pre-defined area for several weeks without the need for any human intervention

(19) Buteo Called Buteo, this electric apparatus is neither an aero- plane nor a helicopter but both. It is conceived as a prototype of a hybrid of an aeroplane and a helicopter. It is capable of hovering like a helicopter but also has the added dynamic flight manoeuvres of an aeroplane. It has been designed for mine detection, charge placement, identification of radioac- tive sources around nuclear power stations and for aerial pho- tography through the windows of high rise buildings

(20) Portable Video Re-transmission Coccinelle Weighing between 280 and 400grams, named Coccinelle or Ladybird, this drone is intended for forces of law and order, police, fire fighters etc. Particularly quiet, this drone is equipped with a colour camera and transmits real time video images to a ground based back pack or case with integrated screen. Both the back pack and case are solar pow- ered and therefore completely autonomous. it cannot be detected by mag- netic waves, or by infrared waves as it does not heat up, often friction in the air at a certain speed creates heat, or by laser beams because it neither reflects nor reverberates. Totally si- lent and non-polluting the drone is 1.8m long, has a wing span of 4.2m and weighs 2.5kg. This is a development of the Libelulle high altitude drone.


The launch of the joint development of two demonstrators of latest-generation UAVs. The first one is the reconnaissance UAV EuroMALE, in which EADS is the prime contractor (in partnership with Thales, which will jointly ensure with EADS the development of ground segment). Dassault Aviation will look after the development of the air segment and the system architecture. The second is a technological demonstrator of an unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) called Neuron, for which Dassault Aviation has been chosen as the prime contractor. EADS will back Dassault in this programme in the following areas:

Israel is leader of UAVs industry after Yuma Kapor war Israel lost too many aircraft due to SAM missile batteries in war so they choose ,Tadiran and IAI found themselves in bitter competition for military battlefield UAV , Israel has 6 UAVs producing comapines (1) IAI(Malat) produce 9 UAVs Model(2)Elbit (Silver Arrow) produce 6 UAVs model(3)Aeronautic producing 6 UAVs model(4)EMIT Producing 4 model(5)Rafael producing 2 UAVs model (6) Top-Vision Produce 1 UAVS model. The Netherlands is not the only nation to employ Israeli unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in foreign occupation. They are also utilized by Canadian, US, UK and Australian forces in Afghanistan and Iraq .

(1)IMI Mastiff It was demonstrated to Tadiran and military brass in early 1974. Tadiran management was sold on the idea and gave Ellis a contract to develop an operational system named "Mastiff .The Israeli military began to buy more Mastiffs (2)Top I Vision Casper 250The Casper 250 is a cost effective solution for Homeland security - low intensity conflict Day or Night operations. It can be deployed anywhere in a very short time, the system operation is simple and the Human Machine Interface (HMI) is user-friendly. The Casper 250 is also equipped with specially patented wing architecture and landing method, which increases significantly its survivability and decreases the LCC (Life Cycle Cost).

(3)Top I Vision Aerostat (4)IAI Pioneer (with the USA) Mazlat and AAI developed the Pioneer, The Pioneer a derivative of the SCOUT, was the first UAV System to be purchased by a foreign customer - the US Navy It is still in operational use. Battle proven during the Gulf War and in Bosnia and Iraq

(5)RQ-5 Hunter (with the USA) The Hunter is a heavy tactical UAV system for surveillance, reconnaissance, target acquisition, artillery adjustment and damage assessment. Capable of being upgraded to E-Hunter (Extended Endurance Platform) Capable of carrying multiple payloads simultaneously

(6)IAI General (7)IAI Harpy The MBD missile division of IAI sells another UAV, the "Harpy", which is an antiradar loitering attack drone. It patrols over a battlefield, waiting for somebody to turn on a radar, and then dives into it, destroying it with a blast-fragmentation warhead. The Harpy is in service with the Israeli Defense Forces, as well as Turkey, India, China, Taiwan, and the Republic of Korea are using.

(8)IAI Herod (9)IAI Heron / Machatz-1, reconnaissance Heron TP is an advanced, multi-puropse MALE UAV system with an extended performance envelope and a variety of payloads capability.The Heron TP was designed as a multi-purpose, multi-system platform to address local and international customers' needs and to perform a variety of strategic missions with a high level of reliability, The HERON I is a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV system for strategic and tactical missions

(10)IAI Ranger The Ranger is a tactical UAV system for use in extreme weather conditions for surveillance, reconnaissance, target acquisition, artillery adjustment and damage assessment. It was developed and manufactured in cooperation with the Swiss company RUAG Aerospace

(11)IAI Scout while IAI came up with a competitor with the appropriate name of "Scout" and sold it to the military as well. The Scout, also known as "Zahavan (Oriole)", had a similar configuration to the Mastiff. (12)IAI Searcher The Mastiff and Scout remained in service with the Israeli Army until the early 1990s, when they were replaced by the Malat "Searcher", also known as the "Meyromit (High Flier)".

(13)IAI Skylite - Canister Launched mini-UAV system Skylite A and sky lite B Rafael's Skylite is man-portable, canister launched, electrically powered loitering surveillance and reconnaissance platform offering superior performance, autonomy, availability and flexibility The system can operate in difficult weather conditions, including high winds that weighs 6kg and is 12cm in diameter (14)Eitan (UCAV)

(15)Elbit Hermes 450 Elbit Systems’ Hermes 450 is classed as a MALE (Medium Altitude, Long Endurance) UAV, though it’s smaller than competitors like General Atomics’ MQ-1 Predator and Israel Aerospace Industries’ Heron. The Hermes 450 is best known for serving as the basis for Britain’s Mk450B Watchkeeper program, which is currently Europe’s largest; meanwhile, the standard Mk450 version is serving as an interim contracted UAV with British forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Hermes 450 also serves in IsraelThe company also expects to test-fly its Predator-sized Hermes 900 model in late 2008 or early 2009, after a delay of almost a year. Hermes 450s are operated by the U.S. Department of Defense Joint Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Test and Evaluation Program at the Naval Air Station Fallon[1], and two Hermes 450s were tested by the U.S. Border Patrol in 2004. The Hermes 450 is the basis of the British Army Watchkeeper WK450 development which started in July 2005 in conjunction with Thales.

(16)Elbit Skylark Elbit’s Skylark-I mini-UAV has become a popular choice for portable “over the hill” surveillance, as nations like Israel, Australia, Canada, France, Mexico, Sweden, et. al. adopt it for battlefield use Skylark I comes in 2 versions. The standard Skylark I is launched by hand, The new Skylark I-LE (long endurance) increases flight time from 1.5 hours to 3 hours, with a mission range “greater than 15 km.” The larger Skylark II cannot be launched by hand, like its counterparts; it must use a rail launcher instead. Skylark II competes in the lower tier of the conventional UAV market, alongside models like Textron AAI’s RQ-7 Shadow, IAI’s I-View 250, et. al.

(17)Aeronautics Defense Systems - Aerostar Since its introduction in 2000, the Aerostar has broken several world records and set unprecedented standards for reliability, life cycle, ease of operation, logistics, endurance, operational range, payload options, ground systems interfaces, cost-effectiveness, and more. Currently operational in four continents All modern police forces use fixed wing aircraft and helicopters to detect traffic violations, pursue criminals and hunt for missing persons. The Aerostar UAV System will be available to support US Mexican southern Border Surveillance missions and is currently deployed in a number of countries for border surveillance and critical asset/ force protection

(18)Aeronautics Defense Systems - DominatorThe Dominator MALE UAV is a Multi-mission platform that was designed for Medium Altitude Long Endurance missions. The Dominator UAV system presents extraordinary endurance, operational flexibility and is suited for operation in different climate zones. Capabilities Cruising speed – 90–150 knots Service ceiling – 25,000 feet , Wingspan – 8m Length – 8m

(19)Aeronautics Defense Systems - Aerolight The Aerolight UAV is a close range and training UAV platform developed and manufactured by Aeronautics Defense Systems. It is used for close range ISR missions, training, and testing of experimental payloads. In Addition to a conventional wheeled Take Off & Landing capabilities, The system can be launched by a catapult and can be recovered by a precision Para-foil recovery system. The system is in use by the Israeli AirForce, the US Navy and additional customers worldwide

(20)Aeronautics Defense Systems - Orbiter The Orbiter Mini UAV System Is a compact and lightweight system designed for use in Military and Homeland Security missions. The system presents the ultimate solution for Over The Hill reconnaissance missions, Low Intensity Conflicts and Urban warfare operations as well as any close range ISR mission. The Orbiter System can be transported, assembled, launched and operated by just two persons after minimal training. The entire Orbiter System fits into one backpack and no additional personnel need to befielded. Assembled in less than 10 minutes

(21)EMIT Blue Horizon 2 Fully integrated weapon system capable of capturing and reporting intelligence data in real-time and day/night operation over a pre-determined target zoneSingapore Technologies has signed a 814 million contract with Israel’s Emit Aviation Consultancy for the new Blue Horizon UAV (22)EMIT SparrowThe Sparrow is a retrievable, modestly sized UAV, equipped with an Electro-optical, day/night, stabilized payload. It's advanced avionics provide a fully manual to fully autonomous flight, combined with surveillance and recognition capabilities. A typically configured, fully fueled Sparrow weighs approx. 45 Kg, carries a mission specific payload of 12 Kg. and cruises at 60-70 Kts. for over 4hr. The UAV can be fitted with a larger fuel tank to facilitate extended flight duration.

(23)EMIT ButterflyThe butterfly UAV is a Paramotor glider (Paraglider) based UAV.
High payload carrying capacity. Operational simplicity. Logistical simplicity. Easy to maintain. Cost effective. Payload day/night electro optical, up to 230 Kg ,speed 30knots IAS Crews 2 GCS operator, 1 launcher/recovery operator

(24) 1-View Malat also developed a smaller UAV known as the "I-View", with fixed landing gear, a pusher propeller, and an inverted-vee tail. Australia placed a large order for I-Views in 2006 but ended up cancelling the contract in 2008. Nobody else seems to have adopted it.(25) The Bird-Eye 400 and bird eye 600 system is an optimal solution for low echelon forces to obtain real time intelligence, independent of higher echelon sources. It is Man-portable with fast field deployment by a team of two

(26) Mosquito The MOSQUITO is a Micro UAV System, providing real-time imagery data in restricted urban areas. The MOSQUITO carries a miniature video camera. The system offers a fully automated flight with GPS based "in flight" way point control. Missions are planned using digital maps referencing and wiewed on a computer monitor.The MOSQUITO is hand or bungee launched and lands on it's belly.

(27)Aero SKY Aerosky is a lightweight tactical UAV (70 kg take-off weight) capable of operating at a range of 100 km sustaining a five-hour mission. Maximum operational altitude is 15,000 feet. It carries a 18-kg payload. Aeronautics have developed several light weight (28) Tail-sitter The Tail-Sitter UAV is a V-TOL platform developed by Aeronautics around 2000. It was designed to perform the unique flight profile of vertical Take-off and Landing, air rotation, and horizontal flight. The Tail-Sitter's flight profile combines the advantages of taking-off and landing in rough/crowded/field/urban conditions, and the endurance/range of horizontal flying platforms

The Air Force has put UAVs on top of its wish list. Next year, 52 of the 93 aircraft the Air Force will purchase are unmanned.

Likewise, the demand for pilots and sensor operators grows as the Air Force looks to establish 50 Predator and Reaper orbits — round-the-clock combat air patrols — by 2012. That’s an increase of 17 orbits from the Air Force’s current total, which will require 1,100 crews of one pilot and one sensor operator. The service now has 474 crews, according to Air Combat Command.
Two officer pilots and four enlisted sensor operators sit in the Multi-Aircraft Control system — referred to as the MAC — which can fly up to four missions at a time.

By 2016, the Air Force wants to have 50 orbits — round-the-clock combat air patrols — flown solely by the MQ-9 Reaper, the highly lethal unmanned aerial vehicle. the Air Force flies 33 combat air patrols in Iraq and Afghanistan; 31 of those are Predators, two are Reapers

During the first six months of 2008, Air Force planes dropped 1,853 bombs over Afghanistan — more than were dropped in all of 2006. Last month, they dropped 505 bombs over Afghanistan, while Air Force planes dropped only 29 bombs over Iraq.

UAVs are starting to replace spy satellites in the major espionage agencies. The CIA has long had its own fleet of Predator UAVs, and now the NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, which analyses stuff, makes maps, and the like) and NRO (National Reconnaissance Office, which builds and operates spy satellites) want more UAVs as well. The sudden NRO enthusiasm for UAVs. Places like Afghanistan and Iraq, UAVs are cheaper, and more useful, than satellites

The skillful employment of US Air Force, Army, and Naval air power (to include greatly expanded use of armed and reconnaissance UAV’s : Predator, Reaper, Global hawk, and Shadow) has narrowly prevented the Taliban from massing and achieving local tactical
Victories over isolated and outnumbered US and coalition forces in the East and South.

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